Introduction to Matter and Energy
Energy and matter are two independent entities which strongly interdependent on one another revealed by Einstein’s mass and energy relation (E=mc2).
The Physicists describe the origin of matter and energy from the theory of the Big bang which seems to be the correct theory until now even though it is unable to explain the most basic reason for the expansion of the universe, and violates the first law of thermodynamics which explains the matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed.
The expansion of the universe observed supernovae (last stage of stellar evolution process) in 1998, which shows less expansion rate of the universe than the present expansion rate on Hubble Space Telescope(HST). The most modern general theory of relativity on gravity is also unable to explain the reason for the expansion of the universe it may probably require one more theory to explain in forthcoming days.
Matter and Energy in the Universe
The entire universe is filled with either matter or energy; the quantitative analysis to figure out the composition of the universe is a long-standing question until today.
In 1933 Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky at the California Institute of Technology applied the virial theorem (Total kinetic energy of the stable system of discrete particles, bound by potential forces with that of the total potential energy of the system) to a coma cluster and obtained the evidence for unseen mass (which does not interact with Electromagnetic radiation) this mass was later called Dark matter.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter
The matter which interacts with EM radiation is called ordinary matter which means we all belong to ordinary matter or baryonic matter (protons and neutrons). Physicist’s also predicted the reason for the acceleration of the cosmos and the reason behind this acceleration is an unknown dynamical energy fluid or field called ‘Dark energy’, the dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae.
A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. In 2009 launched Planck mission gave accurate information on the age, contents, and origins of the universe. The new estimate of dark matter content in the universe is 26.8 percent, up from 24 percent, while dark energy falls to 68.3 percent, down from 71.4 percent. The normal matter now is 4.9 percent, up from 4.6 percent.
The detection of ordinary matter and making it accountable is a cosmological challenge due to its high diffused state of matter to overcome there are many techniques and methods that are developed. Some of the prominent techniques are absorption line spectroscopy, quasar spectroscopy, x-ray emission studies, and recently a new method for fast radio bursts.
The content of dark matter, physicists believed it hopefully non-baryonic (not from proton and neutron) in nature due to its non-interacting property of EM radiation.
Components of Dark Matter
The component Dark matter is probably either MACHOs (Massive Compact Halo Objects) or WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) or it consists of both but there is no direct observable or experimental evidence to prove this composition. MACHOs are objects ranging in size from small stars to supermassive black holes.
MACHOS are made of ordinary matter (like protons, neutrons, and electrons). They may be black holes, neutron stars, or brown dwarfs. WIMPs are subatomic particles that are not made up of ordinary matter. They are “weakly interacting” because they can pass through ordinary matter without any effects.
They are “massive” in the sense of having mass (whether they are light or heavy depends on the particle). The prime candidates include neutrinos, axions, and neutralinos.
Neutrinos are detected but the axions and neutralinos are still hypothetical particles that opened up challenging work for CERN( European particle accelerator) to detect this particle without any direct detector perhaps from basic One of the most fundamental laws of physics is that ‘momentum is conserved’.
The study of matter is a never-ending process until know we understand all the fundamental interactions that took place within ordinary matter. In the future, we may expect new fundamental interacting forces other than Strong nuclear, EM, weak nuclear, or gravitational forces.
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