Total solar eclipse

How Solar Eclipse Takes Place and Useful Research Done

Solar Eclipse and People

The eclipses are the Light and Shadow game played by Earth, Moon, and the Sun. As we know there are two types of eclipses they are solar eclipse and lunar eclipse, this article mainly emphasizes solar eclipse. Solar eclipses are one of the major catastrophic events that took place every 18 months of time interval in outer space.

People from various faiths and beliefs are different according to their perceptions, unfortunately, most of all the television media project only on beliefs rather than projecting it as a natural event. I don’t wish to judge them from this article either right or wrong but one thing is right science is always hiding inside the faiths but people look at faith with coveted eyes. On the other end, many Institutions and individual organizations facilitate observing the event individually, this is appreciation able work.

Solar Eclipse
A Solar Eclipse

What are the types of Solar Eclipses?


Solar eclipses are categorized into four types they are Total eclipse (the sun is completely covered by the moon), Annular eclipse (the apparent size of the moon is smaller than the Sun), Hybrid eclipse (a certain part of the earth appears total eclipse and in other parts, it appears as annular eclipse) and Partial eclipse (Moon only partially obscures the sun).

The Total solar eclipse is much more interesting and is widely studied by academicians and Scientists now, It is the obvious question why the total solar eclipse is studied widely rather than other types of eclipses.

 Diagram of a solar eclipse.
Diagram of a solar eclipse.

Discovery of Corona

The answer to the above question is during the total solar eclipse, the Sun is completely covered by the moon on that time the corona (the outermost regions around the Sun) can be observed and studied clearly. When first Corona was seen during the eclipse was identified as a solar phenomenon in the middle of the 19th century until nineteenth-century scientists believed it is due to the terrestrial smoke of earth, even Johannes Kepler also attributed it to the Solar light refracted by the atmosphere.

Early Research in India

In 1868 Janssen studied the corona of the solar eclipse in India by using the spectroscopic analysis technique and found the second most abundant new element this unknown element was named ‘Helium’, This is also further confirmed by Ramsey in 1900.

In 1869 eclipse corona spectrograph showed mysterious green and yellow spectral lines it is assumed that another new element, it is also named ‘coronium’ but later Physicist Grotrian studied and explained that the Green and yellow lines coronal spectral lines are due to Iron presence in ionization state, It was due to extreme temperature of corona (exceeding millions of degree temperature) until present scientists are unable to reason out the cause for the extreme temperature in corona (temperature is not from Sun).

General Theory of relativity

Total Solar eclipse was also evident for the first experimental confirmation of Einstein’s General Theory of relativity prediction of Space-Time distortion in the gravity field, In 1919  Sir Arthur  Eddington and Sir Frank Watson Dyson studied the position of the stars in eclipse picture by selecting the two sites Brazil and Principle island in the African continent.

The eclipse’s picture showed the offset of the stars due to solar gravitational bending of light confirming Einstein’s general theory prediction was right. In Heliophysics (Physics of Sun) the study of the Sun corona helps to understand more information on the Sun’s surface and global variation.

The morphology of Corona

The morphology of Corona changing can be studied due to the reorganization of the surface magnetic field during the solar cycle. Corona is in the Plasma state (the fourth state of matter) where ions play a prominent role, It is the origin of Solar wind which extend up to Heliopause (the outermost boundary of the Solar System). During the Solar eclipse, it is very helpful to understand the interaction of Solar wind with Earth’s atmosphere and the interaction of ions with Earth’s magnetosphere can also be studied.

What is the recent research being made during Solar Eclipse?

The high elevation of cosmic rays

21st-century research during the Solar eclipse is mind-blowing, Recently NASA also conducted experiments to measure the high elevation of cosmic rays (Radiation from outer space) during the Solar eclipse, It helps to eliminate the Sun’s source radiation and to measure only cosmic rays.


Scientists also took the advantage of the solar eclipse as an opportunity to study Mercury and to construct the thermal map of the mercury surface temperature on the night side of Mercury; it was not possible during normal days due to the proximity of the Sun makes too hard to observe the Mercury.


The study of the corona during a solar eclipse is to understand the physical condition like temperature, Density, and Dynamics of the Corona as well as Solar wind and measure the variation of diameter of the Sun. To study the solar eclipse from space, a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi launched the satellite SOHO (The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) in 1995, It studied X-ray radiation arising from high-temperature Coronal plasmas and mapped the whole Solar Disk.

Eclipse Data

The interpretation of eclipse Space data with earth observatory data gives us new insight and knowledge on the Nature of the Sun, Many recent advancements in technology help the scientific community to unveil the new Science from space.

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    Temperature is a relative measure or indication of the hotness or coldness of a body. The temperature of a body determines the direction of the flow of energy. The SI unit of temperature is kelvin (K). °C is a commonly used unit of temperature.
    The viscous drag increases with increases velocity of the body, but it is found that the body after attaining certain velocity starts moving with a constant velocity called terminal velocity.
    The materials that can flow are called fluids. Liquids and gases are collectively known as fluids. Unlike a solid, a fluid has no definite shape of its own.
    The property of a body, due to which it tends to regain its original size and shape when deforming force is removed, is called elasticity. The deformation caused is called as elastic deformation.

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